class: center, middle # Course Introduction ## CS291A: Scalable Internet Services ### Dr. Bryce Boe --- # About Me * UCSB CS Alum (BS: 2008, Ph.D.: 2014) * 7th (and final) time teaching this course (was CS290B in Fall 2015) * Currently Staff Software Engineer, Tech Lead at AppFolio since 2014 * Will be Senior Security Software Engineer at Netflix beginning in December * Many years of web development and operations experience * First web page using HTML in 1996 * Learned PHP and MySQL around 2002 * Member of [Order of the Overflow](https://www.oooverflow.io/) (former DEF CON CTF organizing team) --- # My Teammates "Pear" Programming * Took this course in Winter 2009 (CS290N at the time) ![Jon and Adam 'Pear' Programming](pear_programming.png) --- # Nevena Golubovic - UCSB CS Alum (Ph.D.: 2019) - Software Engineer at AppFolio since 2020 - Took this course in 2013 (CS290B) - Responsibilities: - Cover a few lectures - Directly support a few primary project teams - Generally provide support to student questions --- # Course Improvements If you notice an issue with or wish to make an improvement to any of the course content (e.g., slides, web pages) please edit them and make a pull request. Website source:
--- # Questions and Feedback At any point during this course: Stop me to: * ask a question * ask for clarification * provide an additional example Communicate to me: * how I can help you succeed in this course * ideas for making the course more engaging * any other feedback you may have --- # Today's Outline * Course Motivation * Course Structure --- class: center inverse middle # Course Motivation --- class: center middle # How do you find a place to rent? --- # ...How do you find a place to rent? * [Rent.com](http://www.rent.com/) * [Apartment Guide](http://www.apartmentguide.com/) * [Rental Houses](http://www.rentalhouses.com/search/Goleta-CA) * [Zillow](http://www.zillow.com/homes/for_rent/) * [Realtor](http://www.realtor.com/apartments/Goleta_CA) * [Trulia](http://www.trulia.com/for_rent/Goleta,CA) * [PadMapper](http://www.padmapper.com/) * [Craigslist](https://santabarbara.craigslist.org/) --- class: center middle # How do you find your way in a new city? --- # ...How do you find your way in a new city? * [Google Maps](https://www.google.com/maps) * [mapquest](http://www.mapquest.com/maps?city=Goleta&state=CA) * [tripadvisor](http://www.tripadvisor.com/LocalMaps-g32438-Goleta-Area.html) * [Yelp](http://www.yelp.com/c/goleta-ca-us/restaurants) * [Lyft](https://www.lyft.com) * [Uber](https://www.uber.com) --- class: center middle # How do you find someone to date? --- # ...How do you find someone to date? * [Tinder](https://www.tinder.com/) * [OkCupid](https://www.okcupid.com/) * [Coffee Meets Bagel](https://site.coffeemeetsbagel.com/) * [EliteSingles](https://www.elitesingles.com/) * [Match](http://www.match.com/) * [Bumble](https://bumble.com/) * [eHarmony](http://www.eharmony.com/) * [Zoosk](https://www.zoosk.com/) * [HER](https://weareher.com/) * [Grindr](https://www.grindr.com/) * [Jdate](https://www.jdate.com/en-us) * [Christian Mingle](http://www.christianmingle.com/) * [Facebook](https://newsroom.fb.com/news/2019/09/facebook-dating/) * and many more! --- # Internet (or Web) Services Each of the previous problems can be solved by a variety of Internet services. Every day billions of people use various Internet services to solve such problems. > What other every day problems are solved by Internet services? --- class: center inverse middle # As an Internet service grows in popularity, supporting the increased amount of Internet traffic results in increased complexity of the Internet service --- class: center middle ![Reddit downs North Korea's web sites](reddit_nk.png) ![Stephen Fry takes down websites with single tweet](stephen_fry_tweet.png) --- class: center inverse middle # Complex Services Can Also Fail --- class: center middle ![Akamai July 22, 2021](akamai_0721.png)
--- class: center middle ![Cloudflare November 2, 2020](cloudflare_1120.png)
--- class: center middle ![Slack May 12, 2020](slack_0520.png)
--- class: center middle ![Cloudflare Outage July 2, 2019](cloudflare_0719.png)
--- class: center middle ![Facebook Outage March 14, 2019](facebook_0319.png)
--- # Internet Services, what's that? .center[![Question Mark](question_mark.jpg)] --- # ...Internet Services, what's that? There are many application-level protocols that are used to build out Internet Services. For this class, Internet services will refer to HTTP-based services. The interface to your web service may be the web browser (e.g., Chrome, Firefox), an API client (via REST, GraphQL, etc), or both. --- # What about mobile? Many native mobile apps are backed by Internet services via an API. ![Mobile v. Desktop from 2010 through 2014](mobile_v_desktop.png) High Performance Browser networking details issues with mobile users and offers some optimizations designed for them ([HPBN chapters 5 through 8](https://hpbn.co/#toc)). However, these topics won't be covered in this class. --- # Scalable, what does that mean? .center[![Question Mark](question_mark.jpg)] --- # ...Scalable, what does that mean? An Internet service is scalable if increasing demands can be effectively met with increasing capacity. Demands could be: * Web traffic quantity (typical association) * Dataset size --- # Effectively meet demands: Explanation * Internet service remains available * Response time does not excessively degrade ## Think about it You have a web service designed to run on a single server. What do you do when you can no longer effectively meet demand. __Is your solution scalable?__ --- class: center inverse middle # Course Structure --- # First Five-ish Weeks * The basics (HTTP and HTML) * HTTP Application Server architectures * High availability via load balancing * Client-side and server-side caching * Content-delivery networks * Software engineering techniques: _Agile_, _TDD_, _Continuous Integration_ (CI), Pair Programming --- # Later Course Topics * Relational databases with web applications: concurrency control and query analysis * Scaling via: * Sharding * Service-Oriented-Architecture (SOA) * Read-followers * Non-relational data stores (NoSQL) * Web security: _firewalls_, _https_, _XSS_, _CSRF_ * HTTP 2.0 --- # Course Skills __This course is fairly demanding, but is one of the most industry-applicable courses you can take.__ You will develop the following skills: * Programming in __Ruby__ * Building web services using the __Rails__ framework * Working with __Docker__ * Experience with Amazon Web Services (__AWS__): __EC2__, __Elastic Beanstalk__, __Lambda__, __S3__ * Load testing Internet services via __Tsung__, and __ab__ * __Agile__/__Scrum__ software development * Development using __Git__ with a _feature-branch_ flow via __github__ _pull requests_ --- # This course is _not_ a deep-dive into: * Cloud Computing * Distributed Systems * Networking * Relational Databases * Security But we will touch on all of the above. --- # Industry Focused The skills you should develop through this course are the same that I use everyday at work. The projects will all be open source so if you're proud of your team's work (you should be) then put a link to the project on your résumé. Industry related tools you will use: * Git via Github (project source version control) * Ruby on Rails (development stack) * GitHub actions (automated testing) --- # What you will do In this course you will learn and utilize some of the technologies behind building large-scale Internet services. You will test and support to the best of your abilities: * Exponential growth in the amount of traffic to your web service * Exponential growth in the dataset your web service relies upon --- # In Summary This course won't teach you how to build a web application that obtains worldwide attention and usage. However, this course will teach you how to build a web application __that can respond to__ worldwide attention and usage. --- # Why Ruby on Rails? Ruby is an interpreted language, thus it is not terribly __fast__, nor is very __memory efficient__. However, it is very easily scalable, and for most Internet services, developer time ($$$) is going to be much more significant than the efficiency of the service. Building Rails Internet services quickly with zero prior experience makes this class possible. Consistency in frameworks across teams allows us to better support each other.